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    We investigated the distribution and severity of trees infected with western hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosendahl) G.N. Jones subsp. tsugense) in an old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forest. With the use of Hawksworth six-class dwarf mistletoe rating system, infection status was assessed for 3516 hemlock and true firs ≥5 cm diameter on a 12-ha stem-mapped plot located in the Cascade Mountains of southwest Washington State. Within the plot, 33% of the area had some level of infection and 25% (719) of western hemlocks, 2.2% (12) of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes), and 29% (2) of noble fir (Abies procera Rehd.) trees were infected. Infected trees are larger than uninfected trees, on average, and within the infected tree population, the severely infected trees averaged larger than lightly infected trees. Abundant dwarf mistletoe in larger trees definitely positions the dwarf mistletoe population for future spread. Ripley's K analysis indicates a negative association between infected and uninfected hemlock trees, confirming that the infected trees form distinct dwarf mistletoe infection centers. The infection centers are actively spreading at their margins, which was confirmed by nearest neighbor analysis. Heavily infected trees had a negative association with uninfected trees, while lightly infected trees had a positive association with uninfected trees.

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    Shaw, David C.; Chen, Jiquan; Freeman, Elizabeth A.; Braun, David M. 2005. Spatial and population characteristics of dwarf mistletoe infected trees in an old-growth Douglas-fir - western hemlock forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 35: 990-1001

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