Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Richard D. Orchard
    Date: 1988
    Source: Res. Note PNW-RN-482. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 16 p
    Publication Series: Research Note (RN)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (0 B)


    A new method, with heat as a tracer, was developed for measuring rate and direction of intragravel waterflow through salmon spawning gravel. A commercial flowmeter was calibrated in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. Flow measurements comparing the flowmeter with a dye-tracer method were made in an artificial stream channel at Young Bay and in two low-gradient streams at Trap Bay in southeast Alaska. The method requires a standpipe. Once the standpipe is in place, a flow reading can be taken in 3 to 5 minutes. The flowmeter response is linear for flow rates up to 150 centimeters per hour and then becomes curvilinear. A correction factor applied to the instrument response can extend the range to about 500 centimeters per hour. The flowmeter demonstrated excellent reproducibility in the laboratory. The equipment is self-contained, and all necessary supplies are available on the open market.

    Publication Notes

    • Visit PNW's Publication Request Page to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Orchard, Richard D. 1988. New method for measuring water seepage through salmon spawning gravel. Res. Note PNW-RN-483. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 16 p


    Google Scholar


    Spawning habitat, flow equipment, streams, intragravel waterflow, groundwater, flowmeter

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page