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    Author(s): Richard D. Orchard
    Date: 1988
    Source: Res. Note PNW-RN-482. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 16 p
    Publication Series: Research Note (RN)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (0 B)

    Description

    A new method, with heat as a tracer, was developed for measuring rate and direction of intragravel waterflow through salmon spawning gravel. A commercial flowmeter was calibrated in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. Flow measurements comparing the flowmeter with a dye-tracer method were made in an artificial stream channel at Young Bay and in two low-gradient streams at Trap Bay in southeast Alaska. The method requires a standpipe. Once the standpipe is in place, a flow reading can be taken in 3 to 5 minutes. The flowmeter response is linear for flow rates up to 150 centimeters per hour and then becomes curvilinear. A correction factor applied to the instrument response can extend the range to about 500 centimeters per hour. The flowmeter demonstrated excellent reproducibility in the laboratory. The equipment is self-contained, and all necessary supplies are available on the open market.

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    Citation

    Orchard, Richard D. 1988. New method for measuring water seepage through salmon spawning gravel. Res. Note PNW-RN-483. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 16 p

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    Keywords

    Spawning habitat, flow equipment, streams, intragravel waterflow, groundwater, flowmeter

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