Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): D.W. Reiser; T.C. Bjornn
    Date: 1979
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-096. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 1-54
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (3.90 MB)


    Habitat requirements of anadromous and some resident salmonid fishes have been described for various life stages, including upstream migration of adults, spawning, incubation, and juvenile rearing.

    Factors important in the migration of adults are water temperature, minimum water depth, maximum water velocity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and barriers.

    Habitat requirements for successful spawning are suitable water temperature, water depth, water velocity, and substrate composition. Cover—riparian vegetation, undercut banks, and so on—is needed to protect salmonids waiting to spawn and may influence the selection of spawning locations.

    Incubation requirements incorporate both extra- and intragravel factors. Extragravel factors are: dissolved oxygen, temperature, velocity, discharge, and biochemical oxygen demand of the stream. Intragravel factors are dissolved oxygen, temperature, permeability, apparent velocity, and sediment composition.
    Important habitat components for juvenile rearing are fish food production areas, water quality, cover, and space. Good fish food production areas are mostly riffles with water depths of 0.15-0.91 m, water velocities of 0.30-0.46 m/s, and substrates of coarse gravel and rubble (3.2-30.4 cm). Good water quality for rearing salmonids includes mean summer water temperatures of 10.0°-14.0°C, dissolved oxygen at more than 80-percent saturation, suspended sediment less than 25 mg/liter, and fine sediment content of riffles less than 20 percent. Adequate cover—in the form of riparian vegetation, undercut banks, aquatic vegetation, and rubble-boulder areas—is needed to protect juvenile fish from predation and adverse physical factors.

    Publication Notes

    • Visit PNW's Publication Request Page to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Reiser, D.W.; Bjornn, T.C. 1979. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: habitat requirements of anadromous salmonids. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-096. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 1-54


    fish habitat, anadromous fish, salmonids, habitat needs

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page