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Some effects of predaceous birds and ants on the western spruce budworm on conifer seedlings.Author(s): Robert W. Campbell; Clinton E. Carlson; Leon J. Theroux; Thomas H. Egan
Source: Res. Pap. PNW-RP-315. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 8 p
Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
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DescriptionEffects of predaceous birds and ants on the western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis, were studied on seedlings of western larch and Douglas-fir in western Montana. On western larch, both birds and ants reduced survival of larval budworm (instars IV-VI). On Douglas-fir, larval survival on one site was reduced by ants but not by birds. On a second site, neither birds nor ants had any effect on larval survival on Douglas-fir. Ants, but not birds, continued to have a major effect on the survival of budworm pupae.
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CitationCampbell, Robert W.; Carlson, Clinton E.; Theroux, Leon J.; Egan, Thomas H. 1984. Some effects of predaceous birds and ants on the western spruce budworm on conifer seedlings. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-315. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 8 p
KeywordsPredator-prey relations, predators (insect) (-forest pest control, western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis
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