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    Author(s): Robert W. Campbell; Clinton E. Carlson; Leon J. Theroux; Thomas H. Egan
    Date: 1984
    Source: Res. Pap. PNW-RP-315. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 8 p
    Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (394 KB)

    Description

    Effects of predaceous birds and ants on the western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis, were studied on seedlings of western larch and Douglas-fir in western Montana. On western larch, both birds and ants reduced survival of larval budworm (instars IV-VI). On Douglas-fir, larval survival on one site was reduced by ants but not by birds. On a second site, neither birds nor ants had any effect on larval survival on Douglas-fir. Ants, but not birds, continued to have a major effect on the survival of budworm pupae.

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    Citation

    Campbell, Robert W.; Carlson, Clinton E.; Theroux, Leon J.; Egan, Thomas H. 1984. Some effects of predaceous birds and ants on the western spruce budworm on conifer seedlings. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-315. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 8 p

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    Keywords

    Predator-prey relations, predators (insect) (-forest pest control, western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis

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