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    Author(s): Eun Woo Shin; Roger M. Rowell
    Date: 2005
    Source: Chemosphere. Vol. 60 (2005): p. 1054-1061.
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (256 KB)


    Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), a small-diameter underutilized material, has been studied as a lignocellulosic bio-sorbent for removing heavy metals from water. In this study, juniper wood was modified by sulfonation to enhance sorption capacity for cadmium in water. The origin of the enhancement was investigated by observing the sorption behaviors and the change in surface functional group concentrations. Cadmium sorption by all juniper wood biosorbents studied was fast and the sorption capacity decreased with decreasing pH, similar to results found for other bio-sorbents. Sulfonated juniper was found to have at least twice the sorption capacity for cadmium removal from water compared to that of untreated juniper, though the sorption capacity increased with increasing pH. A slight increase in carboxylate content after sulfonation was likely responsible for a small portion of the enhancement. Elemental analysis showed an increase in sulfur content after sulfonation. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectra showed a decrease in the band at 1660 cm_1 in the range of carbonyl groups as a result of sulfonation. This indicates that coniferaldehyde groups in the lignin of juniper wood corresponding to this band were substituted into sulfonic acid groups after sulfonation. This interpretation was supported by both the color forming reaction with phloroglucinol– hydrochloric acid and the reaction mechanisms from the acid sulfite pulping process. Consequently, the enhancement of cadmium sorption capacity of juniper wood by sulfonation mainly originated from the production of sulfonic acid groups, which are binding sites for heavy metals.

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    Shin, Eun Woo; Rowell, Roger M. 2005. Cadmium ion sorption onto lignocellulosic biosorbent modified by sulfonation : the origin of sorption capacity improvement. Chemosphere. Vol. 60 (2005): p. 1054-1061.


    Juniper wood, lignocellulosic biosorbent, sulfonic acid group, cadmium removal, coniferaldehyde group, Fourier transform spectroscopy, water quality management, metal ions, absorption, adsorption, lignocellulose, heavy metals, water pollution, chemical modification, lignocellulosic fibers, sulphonation, modified wood

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