This report quantifies benefits and costs for typical small, medium, and large deciduous (losing their leaves every autumn) trees: crabapple, red oak, and hackberry (see "Common and Scientific Names" section). The analysis assumed that trees were planted in a residential yard or public site (streetside or park) with a 60 percent survival rate over a 40-year timeframe. Tree care costs were based on results from a survey of municipal and commercial arborists. Benefits were calculated by using tree growth curves and numerical models that consider regional climate, building characteristics, air-pollutant concentrations, and prices.
McPherson, E. Gregory; Simpson, James R.; Peper, Paula J.; Maco, Scott E.; Gardner, Shelley L.; Cozad, Shauna K.; Xiao, Qingfu. 2006. Midwest community tree guide: benefits, costs, and strategic planting. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-199. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 99 p