Skip to Main Content
Due to a lapse in federal funding, this USDA website will not be actively updated. Once funding has been reestablished, online operations will continue.
Black cohosh Actaea racemosa: an annotated bibliographyAuthor(s): Mary L. Predny; Patricia De Angelis; James L. Chamberlain
Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS–97. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 99 p.
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Station: Southern Research Station
PDF: View PDF (1.40 MB)
DescriptionBlack cohosh (Actaea racemosa, Syn.: Cimicifuga racemosa), a member of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), is an erect perennial found in rich cove forests of Eastern North America from Georgia to Ontario. Native Americans used black cohosh for a variety of ailments including rheumatism, malaria, sore throats, and complications associated with childbirth. Europeans have used this important medicinal plant to treat menopausal symptoms for over 40 years. Recent clinical evidence supports the efficacy and safety of black cohosh for these symptoms. Recent decisions by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on hormone replacement therapy have increased the demand for black cohosh. In a 1-year period ending in 1998, retail sales increased more than 500 percent. In 2001, when retail sales in other segments of the herbal products industry were down, black cohosh sales increased about 2 percent to an estimated value of $6.2 million. Nearly 100 percent of black cohosh raw materials are wild harvested. Though it has received an “apparently secure” ecological ranking on the global and national scales, conservation groups list the species as “at risk” in the United States and endangered in Illinois and Massachusetts. Research is underway to determine sustainable harvest levels and to establish suitable cultivation methods.`
- You may send email to email@example.com to request a hard copy of this publication.
- (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationPredny, Mary L.; De Angelis, Patricia; Chamberlain, James L. 2006. Black cohosh Actaea racemosa: an annotated bibliography. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS–97. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 99 p.
KeywordsConservation, medicinal plants, menopause, nontimber forest products, phytoestrogens, poaching
- Recovery of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) following experimental harvests
- Failure of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) rhizome transplants: potential causes and forest farming implications
- Experimental harvest and regrowth in Appalachian black cohosh ( Actaea racemosa , Ranunculaceae) populations: Implications for sustainable management of a medicinal forest herb
XML: View XML