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Thwarting Phytophthora ramorum: a proposed disease cycle with mitigation measuresAuthor(s): Betsy Randall-Schadel; Scott Redlin
Source: In: Frankel, Susan J.; Shea, Patrick J.; and Haverty, Michael I., tech. coords. Proceedings of the sudden oak death second science symposium: the state of our knowledge. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-196. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture: 285-286
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
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DescriptionPhytophthora ramorum has become increasingly disruptive to the movement of nursery stock since it was described in 2001. Risk and mitigation assessments for P. ramorum have been done or are underway by APHIS. Because of the impact of this pathogen on forests and the nursery industry, accelerated research efforts are underway. Capturing new information in a graphic format was desirable. The lack of a single mitigation measure to effectively eliminate P. ramorum from nursery stock suggested the value of a diagram highlighting points in the disease cycle where mitigations may be effective. For each point, potential mitigation measures are listed. The diagram was compiled from scientific sources including published papers and proceedings of science panels. The proposed disease cycle originally had four phases: foliar hosts, canker hosts, soil/potting medium and dormancy phases. The multicyclic foliar and dieback hosts were linked with the monocyclic potential of canker hosts. The recent reports of the inoculation with infested potting media and persistence of the pathogen in potting media prompted the inclusion of the soil/potting medium phase. The potential survival of chlamydospores and mycelia are included in the dormancy phase. The four phases are color coded and linked by reproduction and survival of the pathogen. The proposed disease cycle is being presented in a variety of scientific forums to elicit feedback. The disease cycle and mitigation diagram was presented at the 2004 Ornamental Workshop hosted by North Carolina State University. Additions to the diagram following that interaction included sexual reproduction and the biological requirements to transition from one phase to the next. The proposed cycle (fig. 1) and mitigation measures are presented in an interactive poster format to prompt discussion.
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CitationRandall-Schadel, Betsy; Redlin, Scott. 2006. Thwarting Phytophthora ramorum: a proposed disease cycle with mitigation measures. In: Frankel, Susan J.; Shea, Patrick J.; and Haverty, Michael I., tech. coords. Proceedings of the sudden oak death second science symposium: the state of our knowledge. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-196. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture: 285-286
KeywordsPhytophthora ramorum. risk assessment, mitigation assessment
- Survival of Phytophthora species and other pathogens in soilless media components or soil and their eradication with aerated steam
- Woodland structure affects intensity of infection by an exotic forest pathogen
Disease risk of potting media infested with Phytophthora ramorum under nursery conditions
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