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    Author(s): Susan J. Frankel; Steven W. Oak
    Date: 2006
    Source: In: Frankel, Susan J.; Shea, Patrick J.; and Haverty, Michael I., tech. coords. Proceedings of the sudden oak death second science symposium: the state of our knowledge. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-196. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture: 463
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (13 KB)

    Description

    Regulation of Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death and other diseases, has resulted in endless challenges for regulators, and the forest and nursery industries in the United States. This paper outlines the process used to design U.S. P. ramorum quarantines and explores some of the biological paradoxes presented by having to develop regulations for a recently discovered pathogen. Disregard for Koch’s postulates, limitations of PCR and cultural diagnostic techniques, the perils of basing rules purely on published literature, and the precautionary principle are discussed. The current status of U.S. and California regulations are compared to demonstrate the difficulties of limiting pathogen spread using generally accepted regulatory processes. The economic and social impacts of the U.S. P. ramorum quarantine are also presented along with suggested steps to improve quarantine procedures.

    Publication Notes

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Frankel, Susan J.; Oak, Steven W. 2006. Converting biology into regulations: U.S. Phytophthora ramorum quarantine as a case study. In: Frankel, Susan J.; Shea, Patrick J.; and Haverty, Michael I., tech. coords. Proceedings of the sudden oak death second science symposium: the state of our knowledge. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-196. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture: 463

    Keywords

    Phytophthora ramorum, sudden oak death, quarantine policy

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https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/26680