Skip to Main Content
Forest condition in LatviaAuthor(s): Madis Sipols
Source: In: Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Arbaugh, Michael J.; Schilling, Susan L., tech. coords. Proceedings of the international symposium on air pollution and climate change effects on forest ecosystems. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-166. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 281-285
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
PDF: View PDF (340 KB)
DescriptionSystematic assessment and observation (survey, inventory) of forests in Latvia has been underway since the 1700's. Latvia's forests are in the boreal/temperate forest zone and cover 44 percent of the country. Forest growing conditions are subdivided into five site class types: forests on dry mineral, wet mineral, wet peat, drained mineral, drained peat soils. The dominant tree species in Latvia are Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 39.7 percent; Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), 20.6 percent; and common birch (Betula pendula Roth.), 28.4 percent. Systematic assessment of air pollution impacts on forest health in Latvia was started in 1990 by the International Cooperative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests - ICP Forests. Assessment methods were changed to the USDA Forest Service's Forest Health Monitoring Program in 1994. Assessments of forest ecosystems in Latvia show the alteration and disappearance of stand structure of typical, common forest ecosystems (especially Scots pine stands), and the invasion of plant species non-typical to these forests, which has been caused by human activities and air pollution (sinantropization). It has also been found that Norway spruce stands will be endangered in the near future because of their sensitivity to environmental factors, and that currently forest stand health is mainly affected by localized entomological damage (insect and fungal diseases). In addition, environmental pollution has caused biological destabilization in forest ecosystems.
- You may send email to email@example.com to request a hard copy of this publication.
- (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationSipols, Madis. 1998. Forest condition in Latvia. In: Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Arbaugh, Michael J.; Schilling, Susan L., tech. coords. Proceedings of the international symposium on air pollution and climate change effects on forest ecosystems. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-166. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 281-285
- Regeneration in windthrow areas in hemiboreal forests: the influence of microsite on the height growths of different tree species
- Impact of wind-induced microsites and disturbance severity on tree regeneration patterns: Results from the first post-storm decade
- Status of the Southern Carpathian forests in the long-term ecological research network
XML: View XML