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    Author(s): Lynn M. Ferrante; Edward C. Thor
    Date: 1980
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-41. Berkeley, Calif.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Exp. Stn. 11 p
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.3 MB)


    Sudden changes in the level of coal mining activity in an area can cause immediate and profound changes in every facet of life in a rural community. Local officials and administrators of Federal and State governments often bear the brunt of responding to the disruptions that result from these changes. The nature of coal mining in the West is such that the community in general and the resource managers and officials involved often do not receive sufficient warning of the changes in mining and so are caught unprepared. By learning what signs to look for, however, these decision makers can predict such changes and thereby be prepared to deal with them.

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    Ferrante, Lynn M.; Thor, Edward C. 1980. Predicting events in the development of a coal surface mine in the west. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-41. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 11 p.


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    rural environment, change agents, community change, prediction, strip mining, surface mining

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