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    Author(s): Glenn R. Stewart; Mark R. Jennings; Robert H. Jr. Goodman
    Date: 2005
    Source: In: Kus, Barbara E., and Beyers, Jan L., technical coordinators. Planning for Biodiversity: Bringing Research and Management Together. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-195. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture: 165-197
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (2.2 MB)

    Description

    At least 35 species of amphibians and reptiles occur regularly in the conifer forest areas of southern California. Twelve of them have some or all of their populations identified as experiencing some degree of threat. Among the snakes, frogs, and salamanders that we believe need particular attention are the southern rubber boa (Charina bottae umbratica), San Bernardino mountain kingsnake (Lampropeltis zonata parvirubra), San Diego mountain kingsnake (L.z. pulchra), California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii), mountain yellow-legged frog (R. muscosa), San Gabriel Mountain slender salamander (Batrachoseps gabrieli), yellow-blotched salamander (Ensatina eschscholtzii croceater), and large-blotched salamander (E.e. klauberi). To varying degrees, these taxa face threats of habitat degradation and fragmentation, as well as a multitude of other impacts ranging from predation by alien species and human collectors to reduced genetic diversity and chance environmental catastrophes. Except for the recently described San Gabriel Mountain slender salamander, all of these focus taxa are included on Federal and/or State lists of endangered, threatened, or special concern species. Those not federally listed as Endangered or Threatened are listed as Forest Service Region 5 Sensitive Species. All of these taxa also are the subjects of recent and ongoing phylogeographic studies, and they are of continuing interest to biologists studying the evolutionary processes that shape modern species of terrestrial vertebrates. Current information on their taxonomy, distribution, habits and problems is briefly reviewed and management recommendations are made. Further research is needed to elucidate their biological status and needs and to provide the basis for appropriate management programs. Programs must be monitored to ensure that desired objectives are achieved.

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    Citation

    Stewart, Glenn R.; Jennings, Mark R.; Goodman, Robert H. Jr. 2005. Sensitive species of snakes, frogs, and salamanders in southern California conifer forest areas: status and management. In: Kus, Barbara E., and Beyers, Jan L., technical coordinators. Planning for Biodiversity: Bringing Research and Management Together. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-195. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture: 165-197

    Keywords

    collecting, degradation, endangered species, ensatina, extinction, extirpation, fragmentation, fuel wood, habitat loss, mountain kingsnake, off-highway vehicle, red-legged frog, riparian, rubber boa, salamander, special concern, threatened species, yellow-legged frog

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