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    Bond formation primarily involves adhesive rheology and interface chemistry. Bonded assembly strength, however, primarily involves the viscoelastic dissipation of stress over the entire assembly. Models can aid in the understanding of where and why failure occurs and how to improve the strength of the assembly. Horioka and Marra have both proposed models which define failure zones for wood bonds. Although mechanical property changes from the bulk adhesive to the bulk wood are more of a continuum than the discrete domains used in these models, the location and cause of failure are easier to assess using the domain concept. The suitability of these models is evaluated, and the more applicable Marra model is extended to a failure classification diagram. This diagram is used to discuss the causes of failure and potential solutions, in addition to methods for determining the location of failure. Further development of this classification diagram and improved analytical methods can aid in making more effective bonded wood products.

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    Frihart, Charles R. 2005. Utility of Horioka’s and Marra’s models for adhesive failure. Wood adhesives 2005 : November 2-4, 2005 ... San Diego, California, USA. Madison, WI : Forest Products Society, 2005: ISBN: 1892529459: pages 233-238.


    Adhesion, adhesives, testing, viscoelasticity, wood, deterioration, Marra's model, Horioka's model, failure, durability, bonding, failures in wood, bond strength

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