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    Author(s): Peter L. Jr. Lorio
    Date: 1993
    Source: In: Beetle-Pathogen Interactions in Conifer Forests. Acidemic Press, London: 81-101
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (3.61 MB)


    Interactions among bark beetles, pathogens, and conifers constitute a triangle. Another triangle of interactions exist among the invading organism (bark beetles and pathogens), the trees, and the environment. How important, variable or constant, simple or complex, is the role of trees in these triangles? Understanding the wide range of interactions that take place among trees, bark beetles, and pathogens, and between the organisms and their environments, requires consideration of tree responses to fluctuating environmental conditions and the effect of tree responses on tree-invading organisms (Loomis and Adams).

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    Lorio, Peter L. Jr. 1993. Environmental stress and whole-tree physiology. In: Beetle-Pathogen Interactions in Conifer Forests. Acidemic Press, London: 81-101

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