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    Author(s): Eileen Johnson
    Date: 2007
    Source: In: Sosebee, Ronald E.; Wester, David B.; Britton, Carlton M.; McArthur, E. Durant; Kitchen, Stanley G., comps. Proceedings: Shrubland dynamics -- fire and water; 2004 August 10-12; Lubbock, TX. Proceedings RMRS-P-47. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 11-23.
    Publication Series: Proceedings (P)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (530 B)

    Description

    The Llano Estacado, or Southern High Plains, has been a grassland throughout the Quaternary. The character of this grassland has varied through time, alternating between open, parkland, and savannah as the climate has changed. Different lines of evidence are used to reconstruct the climatic regimes and ecosystems, consisting of sediments and soils, vertebrate and invertebrate remains, phytolith and macrobotanical remains, isotope data, and radiocarbon ages. Binding or key indicator species throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene are bison, pronghorn antelope, and prairie dog. Depending on time period, hackberry, cottonwood, sumac, honey mesquite, and Texas walnut are among the native trees and shrubs growing in the valleys and around upland basins. The middle Pleistocene is characterized as a sagebrush grassland whereas that of the late Pleistocene is a coolclimate pooid-panicoid dominated grassland. Focusing on the Holocene, this dynamic period experiences climatic changes, the early rise of the short-grass ecosystem, and modulations to that ecosystem.

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    Citation

    Johnson, Eileen. 2007. Grassland ecosystems of the Llano Estacado. In: Sosebee, Ronald E.; Wester, David B.; Britton, Carlton M.; McArthur, E. Durant; Kitchen, Stanley G., comps. Proceedings: Shrubland dynamics -- fire and water; 2004 August 10-12; Lubbock, TX. Proceedings RMRS-P-47. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 11-23.

    Keywords

    wildland shrubs, fire, water, Llano Estacado, Southern High Plains, grassland ecosystems

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https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/28354