Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): A.B. Carey; B.R. Lippke; J. Sessions
    Date: 1999
    Source: Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 9(3/4): 83-125
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (559 KB)


    Conservation of biodiversity provides for economic, social, and environmental sustainability. Intentional management is designed to manage conflicts among groups with conflicting interests. Our goal was to ascertain if intentional management and principles of conservation of biodiversity could be combined into upland and riparian forest management strategies that would be applicable to various land ownerships and, consequently, help resolve land allocation problems associated with timber supply and threatened wildlife. We used computer simulations to model three divergent management strategies for Pacific Northwest western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forests: preservation with no manipulation (NMP), maximizing net present value (npv) through timber and fiber production (TFP), and conservation of biodiversity (CBD) with intentional ecosystem management. We evaluated costs and benefits of alternatives. Economic measures included npv of timber, sustainable timber revenues, total and sustainable volume of wood products, and quality premiums for wood products. Ecological measures included capacity to support vertebrate diversity, forest floor function based on the integrity of the forest-floor mammal community, ecosystem productivity based on the biomass of the arboreal rodent community, and production of wild ungulates. Index values were assigned to seral stages and aggregated across landscapes to evaluate conditions over 300 years. No manipulation resulted in long periods of competitive exclusion that could cause species declines or extirpations. When combined with TFP, wide riparian buffers removed 35% of the landscape from active management, >200 years were required to obtain 30% late seral-forest, late-seral forest were badly fragmented by intervening intensively managed forest, and npv=$48.5 million.

    Publication Notes

    • Visit PNW's Publication Request Page to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Carey, A.B.; Lippke, B.R.; Sessions, J. 1999. Intentional systems management: managing forests for biodiversity. Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 9(3/4): 83-125

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page