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    Author(s): Jim Bishop
    Date: 2007
    Source: In: Butler, Bret W.; Cook, Wayne, comps. The fire environment--innovations, management, and policy; conference proceedings. 26-30 March 2007; Destin, FL. Proceedings RMRS-P-46CD. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. CD-ROM. p. 27-74
    Publication Series: Proceedings (P)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (1.9 MB)

    Description

    The FireLine Assessment MEthod (FLAME) provides a fireline-practical tool for predicting significant changes in fire rate-of-spread (ROS). FLAME addresses the dominant drivers of large, short-term change: effective windspeed, fuel type, and fine-fuel moisture. Primary output is the ROS-ratio, expressing the degree of change in ROS. The application process guides and instills a systematic methodology, utilizing a simple worksheet. The information developed provides a basis for safety judgments and for applying Lookouts, Communications, Escape routes, Safe zones (LCES). The ROS-ratio can be applied to observed fire spread to provide a timeline of future fire spread. Compared to four BehavePlus examples FLAME is accurate to within an average error of 14 percent. In four fireline-fatality cases FLAME predictions match reconstructed ROS-ratios with an average error of 9 percent, and in every case could have foretold the rapid changes that impacted the crews. Adjustment factors are developed to account for variations of windspeed across terrain, and for flame height and sheltering by vegetation. Field application of FLAME is explained and demonstrated with examples.

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    Citation

    Bishop, Jim. 2007. Technical background of the FireLine Assessment MEthod (FLAME). In: Butler, Bret W.; Cook, Wayne, comps. The fire environment--innovations, management, and policy; conference proceedings. 26-30 March 2007; Destin, FL. Proceedings RMRS-P-46CD. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. CD-ROM. p. 27-74

    Keywords

    wildland fire management, FireLine Assessment MEthod, FLAME, fire rate-of-spread, ROS

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