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    Author(s): Alan Rudie; Peter Hart
    Date: 2005
    Source: Solutions : for people, processes and paper. (June 2005): Pages 45-46
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (232 KB)

    Description

    To comply with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's "Cluster Rule," most U.S. mills have switched from the use of chlorine to chlorine dioxide as the oxidant in the first stage of bleaching. This process change has a downside. it increases the formation of mineral scale in bleach plants. Typically, calcium oxalate forms in the chlorine dioxide stages and calcium carbonate in the extraction stages. Many mills have directly linked significant production losses, increased maintenance costs, and increased bleach chemical costs to calcium-based scale formation.

    Publication Notes

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Rudie, Alan; Hart, Peter 2005. Managing calcium oxalate scale in the bleach plant. Solutions : for people, processes and paper. (June 2005): Pages 45-46

    Keywords

    Incrustations, pulp mills, bleaching, oxalic acid, calcium oxalate, mathematical models, pulp and paper processes, scale, digesters, chemical precipitation

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