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    Author(s): Carroll B. Williams; Patrick J. Shea
    Date: 1982
    Source: Res. Paper PSW-RP-159. Berkeley, CA: Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 11 p
    Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
    Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (726 KB)


    Some field studies of the effects of various insecticides on the spruce budworm (Choristoneura sp.) and their parasites have shown severe suppression of host (budworm) populations and increased parasitism after treatment. Computer simulation using hypothetical models of spruce budworm-parasite systems based on these field data revealed that (1) effective parasites produce greater stability in budworm populations than ineffective ones and are more resistant to changes induced by insecticides; and (2) the level of budworm population suppression in most budworm-parasite systems is not proportional to the amount of insecticide applied. Only high insecticide dosages produce any effect on the budworm population. Cost-benefit analyses showed that very high investments are worthwhile, but moderate investments produce little effect. The study demonstrated that the computer simulation process helps to define kinds of information needed for understanding the budworm-parasite system, and can predict system behavior under varying conditions.

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    Williams, Carroll B., Jr.; Shea, Patrick J. 1982. Computer simulation for integrated pest management of spruce budworms. Res. Pap. PSW-RP-159. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 11 p.


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    spruce budworms, insecticides, parasites, integrated pest management

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