Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Jacek Oleksyn; Brian D. Kloeppel; Szymon Lukasiewicz; Piotr Karolewski; Peter B. Reich
    Date: 2007
    Source: Polish Journal of Ecology, Vol. 55(2): 245-260
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (2.50 MB)

    Description

    We explored changes in growth, phenology, net CO2 assimilation rate, water use efficiency, secondary defense compounds, substrate and foliage nutrient concentration of a degraded urban horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) site restored for three years using mulching (tree branches including foliage) and fertilization (primarily nitrogen addition). Prior to restoration, this site was characterized by high pH (ca. 8), low foliage and substrate N, and high Na and Cl concentration. Our data indicated that in untreated plots NaCl used for road decline is V the decisive factors that may be responsible for the decrease of foliar N concentration (via a reduction in NO3 uptake), for the decrease in photosynthesis (through high concentrations of Na and C1 in the leaves) and for increased senescence of the leaves. After three years of treatment, total nitrogen concentration in substrate increased by 3- to 4-fold and calcium concentration decreased by more than 50% in relation to pretreatment levels. Treatment significantly increased seed production (from less than 12 to more than 100 seeds per tree), individual leaf mass (from 1.8 to 3.3 g/leaf), CO2 assimilation rate (by 21 to 30 %), improved 1eafC:N ratio, and increased foliage life span by as much as six weeks. The beginning of leaf fall in untreated control trees started in mid- July and those of mulched and fertilized trees in late October. Applied treatment also eliminated visible symptoms of leaf damage due to high sodium and chlorine levels, indicating the possible role of other factors in the development of necroses. After three years of treatment, pH of most degraded plots declined from 8.2 to 7.8. That decline was accompanied by an increase in foliar Zn, Cu, and Pb concentration in the mulched and fertilized plants. In addition, treatment lowered foliage phenolics making these plants potentially more vulnerable to insect herbivory. Our study indicates that stable carbon isotope discrimination is of little value as an indicator of cumulative salinity and urban environment stress in A. hippocastanum due to pronounced differences in leaf phenology and ontogeny The results of our study show that street tree recovery can take as little as two to three years after application of fertilization and mulching.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to pubrequest@fs.fed.us to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Oleksyn, Jacek; Kloeppel, Brian D.; Lukasiewicz, Szymon; Karolewski, Piotr; Reich, Peter B. 2007. Ecophysiology of horse chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) in degraded and restored urban sites. Polish Journal of Ecology, Vol. 55(2): 245-260

    Keywords

    horse chestnut, urban environment, CO2 exchange, stable carbon isotopes, restoration

    Related Search


    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page