Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Kristina Connor; Gretchen Schaefer; Jillian Donahoo; Margaret DevallEmile GardinerTracy HawkinsA. Dan WilsonNathan SchiffPaul Hamel; Ted Leininger
    Date: 2007
    Source: Biological Conservation, Vol. 137: 489-496
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.62 MB)


    Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia [Walt.] Blume: Lauraceae) is an endangered, dioecious, clonal shrub that grows in bottomland hardwood forests in the southeastern United States. Prior work has emphasized vegetative reproduction associated with the clonal nature of this species. Little has been published about the early morphological and biochemical characteristics of the fruit as they mature. Fruits, drupes originating from the axillary buds, were collected every 30 days after anthesis and examined for seed structure development and fatty acid composition of the fruit and seed. Sixty days after anthesis, fruits had not formed an organized embryo/cotyledon, weighed 0.1 i 0.001 g, and measured 7.1 * 0.04 mm x 4.3 * 0.03 mm. Ninety days after anthesis, a complete seed had formed within the drupe. Of the total drupe weight (average 0.23 i 0.01 g), the seed comprised 33% of the mass gained from 60 days after anthesis. Overall composition of the seed and pulp lipids changed significantly over the course of development. Myristic, palmitic, steric, oleic, linoleic, and linoleic fatty acids were revealed by the lipid analyses. Lauric acid was not found in any of the early seed lipid samples but it increased in quantity as seed matured to become the dominant fatty acid in this tissue. Conversely, pulp contained only small amounts of lauric acid; its fatty acid profile was dominated by oleic acid. Fully hydrated seeds stored well for 16 months at both 4 oC and -2 oC. Although drying had a deleterious effect on germination when dried seeds were conventionally stored at 4 oC, seeds that had been dried for 24 h to a moisture content of 8.6% were successfully stored in liquid nitrogen.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Connor, Kristina; Schaefer, Gretchen; Donahoo, Jillian; Devall, Margaret; Gardiner, Emile; Hawkins, Tracy; Wilson, A. Dan; Schiff, Nathan; Hamel, Paul; Leininger, Ted. 2007. Development, fatty acid composition, and storage of drupes and seeds from the endangered pondberry (Lindera melissifolia). Biological Conservation, Vol. 137: 489-496

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page