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    Author(s): Donald B.K. English; J. Michael Bowker
    Date: 1996
    Source: Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 47: 79-91
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (87.3 KB)


    Considerable research has examined how different ways of accounting for onsite and travel time affect surplus estimates from travel cost models. However, little has been done regarding different definitions of out-of-pocket costs. Estimates of per trip consumer surplus are developed for a zonal travel cost model for outfitted rafting on the Chattooga River. Nine price definitions are used for each of three functional forms. Three price definitions are based on mileage rates times round-trip distance, plus outfitter fees. The remaining six definitions are based on reported spending, using three different sets of expenditures and two methods of imputing prices for zero-visit zones.

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    English, Donald B.K.; Bowker, J. Michael. 1996. Sensitivity of whitewater rafting consumers surplus to pecuniary travel cost specifications. Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 47: 79-91


    travel cost, river recreation, consumer surplus, zonal model, price definition

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