Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    Using hierarchical clustering techniques, we grouped subwatersheds on the eastern slope of the Cascade Range in Washington State into ecological subregions by similarity of area in potential vegetation and climate attributes. We then built spatially continuous historical and current vegetation maps for 48 randomly selected subwatersheds from interpretations of 1938-49 and 1985-93 aerial photos, respectively, and attributes cover types, structural classes, and potential vegetation types to individual patches by modeling procedures. We estimated a natural range of variation (NRV) in spatial patterns of patch types by subwatersheds and five forested ecological subregions. We illustrate how NRV information can be used to characterize the direction and magnitude of vegetation change occurring as a consequence of management.

    Publication Notes

    • Visit PNW's Publication Request Page to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Hessburg, Paul F.; Smith, Bradley G.; Salter, R. Brion. 1999. Using estimates of natural variation to detect ecologically important change in forest spatial patterns: a case study, Cascade Range, eastern Washington. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-514. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 65 p


    Google Scholar


    Natural range of variation, forest health, space-for-time substitution, ecosystem restoration, ecological monitoring, landscape patterns, spatial pattern analysis

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page