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Economic impacts of guided whitewater rafting: a study of five riversAuthor(s): Donald B.K. English; J. Michael Bowker
Source: Journal of The American Water Resources Association, Vol. 32(6): 1319-1328
Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
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DescriptionThis paper presents estimates of the statewide economic impacts of guided whitewater rafting on five rivers in six states: the Nantahala (North Carolina), Gauley (West Virginia), Kennebec (Maine), Middle Fork of the Salmon (Idaho), and Chattooga (Georgia-South Carolina). Except for the Chattooga and Middle Fork, rafting is dependent on upstream dam releases. Guide fees range from about $15 per trip on the Nantahala to over $1,000 on the Middle Fork. Economic impacts per nonresident 1000 visitors increase along with length of the rafting trip and remoteness of the river. Total industrial output per 1000 nonresident visitors ranged from $95,000 on the Nantahala to over $2.5 million on the Middle Fork. However, because of differences in annual visitation levels, total impacts were greatest at the Nantahala, at over $14 million in 1993. Multipliers for all economic measures were relatively consistent over the rivers. Employment multipliers (Type III) ranged from 1.67 to 1.90, income multipliers from 2.0 to 2.4, and industrial output multipliers from 2.1 to 2.5.
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CitationEnglish, Donald B.K.; Bowker, J. Michael. 1996. Economic impacts of guided whitewater rafting: a study of five rivers. Journal of The American Water Resources Association, Vol. 32(6): 1319-1328
Keywordseconomic impacts, whitewater rafting, visitor expenditures, river recreation
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