Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Donald B.K. English; J. Michael Bowker
    Date: 1996
    Source: Journal of The American Water Resources Association, Vol. 32(6): 1319-1328
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.88 MB)


    This paper presents estimates of the statewide economic impacts of guided whitewater rafting on five rivers in six states: the Nantahala (North Carolina), Gauley (West Virginia), Kennebec (Maine), Middle Fork of the Salmon (Idaho), and Chattooga (Georgia-South Carolina). Except for the Chattooga and Middle Fork, rafting is dependent on upstream dam releases. Guide fees range from about $15 per trip on the Nantahala to over $1,000 on the Middle Fork. Economic impacts per nonresident 1000 visitors increase along with length of the rafting trip and remoteness of the river. Total industrial output per 1000 nonresident visitors ranged from $95,000 on the Nantahala to over $2.5 million on the Middle Fork. However, because of differences in annual visitation levels, total impacts were greatest at the Nantahala, at over $14 million in 1993. Multipliers for all economic measures were relatively consistent over the rivers. Employment multipliers (Type III) ranged from 1.67 to 1.90, income multipliers from 2.0 to 2.4, and industrial output multipliers from 2.1 to 2.5.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    English, Donald B.K.; Bowker, J. Michael. 1996. Economic impacts of guided whitewater rafting: a study of five rivers. Journal of The American Water Resources Association, Vol. 32(6): 1319-1328


    economic impacts, whitewater rafting, visitor expenditures, river recreation

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page