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    Using the cognitive hierarchy as the theoretical foundation, this article examines the predictive influence of individuals' demographic characteristics on environmental value orientations and normative beliefs about national forest management. Data for this investigation were obtained from a random sample of Colorado residents (n = 960). As predicted by theory, a structural equation analysis demonstrated that the biocentric/anthropocentric value orientation continuum predicted respondents' norms toward national forest management, and the value orientation mediated the relationship between the demographic predictors and the normative belief. Individuals who had lived longer in the state and those with more income tended to be more anthropocentric. Females and those with higher education levels, on the other hand, were closer to the biocentric end of the conceptual continuum. Overall, this article provides empirical support for expanding the cognitive hierarchy to include other predictor constructs when attempting to understand constituents' positions on natural resource issues.

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    Vaske, Jerry J.; Donnelly, Maureen P.; Williams, Daniel R.; Jonker, Sandra. 2001. Demographic influences on environmental value orientations and normative beliefs about national forest management. Society and Natural Resources. 14(9): 761-776.


    cognitive hierarchy, demographics, normative beliefs, value orientation

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