Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    Geologic variation has important influences on habitat quality for species of concern, but it can be difficult to evaluate due to subtle variations, complex terminology, and inadequate maps. To better understand habitat of the Apache trout (Onchorhynchus apache or O. gilae apache Miller), a threatened endemic species of the White Mountains of eastcentral Arizona, we reviewed existing geologic research to prepare composite geologic maps of the region at intermediate and fine scales. We projected these maps onto digital elevation models to visualize combinations of lithology and topography, or lithotopo types, in three-dimensions. Then we examined habitat studies of the Apache trout to evaluate how intermediate-scale geologic variation could influence habitat quality for the species. Analysis of data from six stream gages in the White Mountains indicates that base flows are sustained better in streams draining Mount Baldy. Felsic parent material and extensive epiclastic deposits account for greater abundance of gravels and boulders in Mount Baldy streams relative to those on adjacent mafic plateaus. Other important factors that are likely to differ between these lithotopo types include temperature, large woody debris, and water chemistry. Habitat analyses and conservation plans that do not account for geologic variation could mislead conservation efforts for the Apache trout by failing to recognize inherent differences in habitat quality and potential.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Long, Jonathan W.; Medina, Alvin L. 2006. Geologic influences on Apache trout habitat in the White Mountains of Arizona. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Sciences. 38(2): 88-101.


    Apache trout, Onchorhynchus apache, habitat, White Mountains, Arizona, geologic variation

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page