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    Author(s): Harold J. Derr; William F. Mann
    Date: 1971
    Source: Agriculture Handbook 391. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (15 MB)


    Direct seeding of the southern pines is a versatile reforestation technique that is being widely accepted by land managers. On many sites it is more economical than planting nursery-grown seedlings or waiting for natural reproduction. It is applicable on some sites where access, terrain, or drainage conditions make planting difficult. Commercial trials have proved it fast and reliable with all the important southern pines and in operations ranging from a few acres to units of 35,000 acres.

    While the technique for direct seeding is new, the basic concept is not. For more than a century, foresters throughout the world have been intrigued by the apparent ease and simplicity of starting stands by sowing limited quantities of seed at the right time on a suitable forest seedbed. Through the years pioneers in the regeneration of southern pines conducted sporadic trials, but their occasional successes were far outnumbered by failures. Usually work was stopped after a few setbacks. The early attempts clearly showed, however, that seed depredation by birds and rodents.

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Derr, Harold J.; Mann, William F., Jr. 1971. Direct-seedling pines in the south. Agriculture Handbook 391. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

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