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    Author(s): M. Cline; C. Harrington
    Date: 2007
    Source: Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 37: 74-83
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.54 MB)


    In young plants of many woody species, the first flush of growth in the spring may be followed by one or more flushes of the terminal shoot if growing conditions are favorable. The occurrence of these additional flushes may significantly affect crown form and structure. Apical dominance (AD) and apical control (AC) are thought to be important control mechanisms in this developmental response. A two-phase AD-AC hypothesis for the factors controlling a subsequent flush is presented and evaluated on the basis of currently known studies. The first, very early phase of this additional flush consists of budbreak and the very beginning of outgrowth of the newly formed current buds on the first flushing shoot. There is evidence that this response often involves the release of AD, which is significantly influenced by the auxin:cytokinin ratio as well as by other signals including nutrients and water. This first phase is immediately followed by a second phase, which consists of subsequent bud outgrowth under the influence of apical control. Although definitive data for hormone involvement in this latter process is sparse, there is some evidence suggesting nutritional mechanisms linked to possible hormone activity. Stem-form defects, a common occurrence in multiple-flushing shoots, are analyzed via the AD-AC hypothesis with suggestions of possible means of abatement.

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    Cline, M.; Harrington, C. 2007. Apical dominance and apical control in multiple flushing of temperate woody species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 37: 74-83


    Apical dominance, apical control, multiple flushing

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