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    Author(s): David W. VaheyJohn M. Considine
    Date: 2007
    Source: 61st Appita Annual Conference and Exhibition : Gold Coast, Australia, 6-9 May 2007 : proceedings. Carlton, VIC : Appita, c2007: ISBN: 9780975746928: Pages 53-59
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (126 KB)

    Description

    Fibers that acquire a Z-direction tilt in the forming process help bond adjacent strata of the paper sheet, increasing Z-direction shear and other properties. For certain tests, this manifests itself as a test difference upon 180° in-plane rotation of the sheet. Seven of eight different paper grades ranging in grammage from 73 to 268 g/m2 were found to show this difference for Scott internal bond tests, directional brightness tests, or both. Directional effects were compared using an extensional and a shear metric. One-third of comparisons showed significant directional effects at the 75-100% confidence level, including roughly equal numbers of Scott bond and brightness comparisons. However, the two tests did not reinforce each other strongly; agreement regarding directional effects occurred in only 60% of comparisons. The number of significant effects in the cross-machine direction matched those in the machine direction (MD), suggesting a more complex model may he needed. The best support for the fiber-tilt model was in the case of MD Scott-internal-bondtesting.

    Publication Notes

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Vahey, David W.; Considine, John M. 2007. Tests for Z-direction fiber orientation. 61st Appita Annual Conference and Exhibition : Gold Coast, Australia, 6-9 May 2007 : proceedings. Carlton, VIC : Appita, c2007: ISBN: 9780975746928: Pages 53-59

    Keywords

    Paper, testing, orientation, fibers, papermaking, shear, Student's t-test, shear strength, Z-direction, wood fibers, testing, paper, strength, brightness, bond strength, fiber tilt, grain, test directionality, running direction, Scott internal bond, brightness, tape pull, fiber pull, confidence, significance, toward headbox, toward reel, Fourdrinier, rush, drag

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https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/29771