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Tests for Z-direction fiber orientationAuthor(s): David W. Vahey; John M. Considine
Source: 61st Appita Annual Conference and Exhibition : Gold Coast, Australia, 6-9 May 2007 : proceedings. Carlton, VIC : Appita, c2007: ISBN: 9780975746928: Pages 53-59
Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
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DescriptionFibers that acquire a Z-direction tilt in the forming process help bond adjacent strata of the paper sheet, increasing Z-direction shear and other properties. For certain tests, this manifests itself as a test difference upon 180° in-plane rotation of the sheet. Seven of eight different paper grades ranging in grammage from 73 to 268 g/m2 were found to show this difference for Scott internal bond tests, directional brightness tests, or both. Directional effects were compared using an extensional and a shear metric. One-third of comparisons showed significant directional effects at the 75-100% confidence level, including roughly equal numbers of Scott bond and brightness comparisons. However, the two tests did not reinforce each other strongly; agreement regarding directional effects occurred in only 60% of comparisons. The number of significant effects in the cross-machine direction matched those in the machine direction (MD), suggesting a more complex model may he needed. The best support for the fiber-tilt model was in the case of MD Scott-internal-bondtesting.
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CitationVahey, David W.; Considine, John M. 2007. Tests for Z-direction fiber orientation. 61st Appita Annual Conference and Exhibition : Gold Coast, Australia, 6-9 May 2007 : proceedings. Carlton, VIC : Appita, c2007: ISBN: 9780975746928: Pages 53-59
KeywordsPaper, testing, orientation, fibers, papermaking, shear, Student's t-test, shear strength, Z-direction, wood fibers, testing, paper, strength, brightness, bond strength, fiber tilt, grain, test directionality, running direction, Scott internal bond, brightness, tape pull, fiber pull, confidence, significance, toward headbox, toward reel, Fourdrinier, rush, drag
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