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    Author(s): Roger N. Clark; Errol E. Meidinger
    Date: 1998
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-441. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 22 p
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (131 KB)


    Relations between science and policy concerning many issues (e.g., health, energy, natural resources) have been changing worldwide. Public pressure to resolve such complex and often controversial issues has resulted in policymakers and policy implementers seeking better knowledge on which to base their decisions. As a result, scientists have become more actively engaged in the creation and evaluation of policy. In this paper we summarize the literature and experience in how Canada, Mexico, and the United States approach the integration of science and policy; we describe some apparent barriers and lessons; and we suggest some issues that may prove fruitful for discussion and future collaboration.

    This paper represents a beginning to understanding science and policy interrelations in North America: we found that we have much to learn from one another. We must avoid, however, the tendency to overgeneralize from one country, or even from one case, to another. The particulars of the situation and context surrounding the cases make drawing firm conclusions and generalizations a risky business. There are some important differences among the three countries that help to explain different approaches to seemingly common problems in the integration of science and policy.

    Publication Notes

    • Visit PNW's Publication Request Page to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Clark, Roger N.; Meidinger, Errol E., et al. 1998. Integrating science and policy in natural resource management: lessons and opportunities from North America. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-441. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 22 p


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    Science, policy, natural resources, integration, forestry, North America

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