Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Date: 2002
    Source: Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol. 38, No. 1-2, 125-126,
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (180 B)


    Mobbing, defined as an intense collective behavior in which birds of one or more species scold or even physically attack a predator, is known from a variety of bird species (Campbell and Lack, 1985; Gill, 1995). Targets commonly include hawks, owls, and snakes. In the West Indies, observations have documented avian mobbing towards various hawk species (e.g., Jeffrey-Smith, 1972; Van Barneveld, 1993); mongoose, Herpestes auropunctatus (Downer, 1977); and even anole lizards, Anolis garmani (Salmon, 1976), but not towards snakes. The absence of such observations may be due to the difficulty of detecting the actual target of the mobbing birds, particularly when obscured by dense canopy vegetation. We have frequently observed mobbing birds without locating their target, although we have often suspected it could be a snake. Here we document four incidences of avian mobbing directed at Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus), which we observed during a four-year radio telemetry study of the boa in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) in eastern Puerto Rico.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    MERCADO, JAVIER E.; TERRANOVA, ESTEBAN; WUNDERLE, JR., JOSEPH M. 2002. Avian Mobbing of the Puerto Rican Boa (Epicrates inornatus). Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol. 38, No. 1-2, 125-126,

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page