Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    Mangrove forests are tough ecosystems to invade because few species can tolerate the hydrological and edaphic conditions that prevail in mangrove habitats. The small pantropical mangrove species pool is also the basis for asserting that mangrove forests are easy to rehabilitate, at least in terms of tree species composition. The high complexity of the animal and microbial component of mangrove ecosystems is not addressed in this article. The following questions are useful as a guide for evaluating the invasion of plant species into mangrove habitats: (1) Is the invading species a halophyte? (2) What conditions of the environment is the invading species occupying and how long will those conditions last? (3) What is the geographic location of the invasion, does it penetrate the forest or is it only at the edge? (4) Is the invasion a short-term response to changes in microsite conditions? (5) Is the invasion the result of a long-term shift in the mangrove habitat?

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    LUGO, ARIEL E. 1998. Mangrove Forests: a Tough System to Invade but an Easy one to Rehabilitate. Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol. 37, Nos. 8±12, pp. 427-430,

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page