Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): James S. Meadows; Daniel A. Jr. Skojac
    Date: 2008
    Source: South J. Appl. For., Vol. 32(2): 69-79
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (3.00 MB)


    A new tree classification system for southern hardwoods is described. The new system is based on the Putnam tree classification system, originally developed by Putnam et al., 1960, Management ond inventory of southern hardwoods, Agriculture Handbook 181, US For. Sew., Washington, DC, which consists of four tree classes: (1) preferred growing stock, (2) reserve growing stock, (3) cutting stock, and (4) cull stock. Tree classes under the Putnam system are used as a basis for planning partial cuttings and for developing marking rules in southern hardwood forests. However, there are critical problems associated with field use of this system: ( I5) t e reserve growing stock class is too broad and poorly defined; (2) in most partial cutting operations, the timber marker must decide which reserve growing stock trees to cut and which ones to leave; (3) the timber marker must try to mark the stand to some prescribed, quantitative level of residual density; and (4) the timber marker often is forced to either leave low-quality trees or cut high-quality trees to maintain the target residual density uniformly across the stand. Overall stand quality often is compromised through use of the Putnam tree classification system and through strict adherence to the concept of stand density management. Our new tree classification system consists of five classes used only for sawtimber-sized trees: (1 1 preferred growing stock, (2) desirable growing stock, (3) acceptable growing stock, (4) cutting stock, and (5) cull stock; and two classes used only for pole timber-sized trees: (1 superior pole timber stock and (2) inferior pole timber stock. Data from one of our hardwood thinning studies are used to illustrate differences between the Putnam and the new tree classification systems. Potential uses and adaptations of the new tree classification system are descended also.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Meadows, James S.; Skojac, Daniel A. Jr. 2008. A new tree classification system for southern hardwoods. South J. Appl. For., Vol. 32(2): 69-79


    partial cutting, thinning, marking guidelines

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page