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    Nonnative invasive insects are having major impacts on the economics and ecology of forests nationwide. Until recently, Alaska was fortunately mostly free of these pests. Because of the remoteness of much of Alaska's native forests, an invasive pest infestation would be extremely difficult to control. Global markets, global climate change, and the ever-increasing mobility of people, goods, and services are working in concert to increase the risk of invasion by exotic organisms to Alaska forests to unprecedented levels.

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Lundquist, J.E.; Zogas, K.F.; Snyder, C.L.; Schulz, B.K. 2008. Alaska biological control program directed at amber-marked birch leaf miner. Western Forester. Jan/Feb: 53(1).


    Nonnative invasive insects, Alaska, biological control, parasitoid wasps, entomopathogenic fungus, beneficial nematodes.

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