Skip to Main Content
Psychophysiological responses and restorative values of wilderness environmentsAuthor(s): Chun-Yen Chang; Ping-Kun Chen; William E. Hammitt; Lisa Machnik
Source: In: Watson, Alan; Sproull, Janet; Dean, Liese, comps. Science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values: Eighth World Wilderness Congress symposium; September 30-October 6, 2005; Anchorage, AK. Proceedings RMRS-P-49. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 479-484
Publication Series: Proceedings (P)
Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
PDF: Download Publication (285 B)
DescriptionScenes of natural areas were used as stimuli to analyze the psychological and physiological responses of subjects while viewing wildland scenes. Attention Restoration Theory (Kaplan 1995) and theorized components of restorative environments were used as an orientation for selection of the visual stimuli. Conducted in Taiwan, the studies recorded the psychophysiological responses of 110 laboratory participants while viewing 12 images that hypothetically represented the Being Away, Extent, Fascination, and Compatibility components of restorative environments. Psychological responses were measured using the Perceived Restorativeness Scale and physiological responses were recorded by electromyography (EMG), electrocephalography (EEG), and blood volume pulse (BVP) measurements. Results revealed a large degree of congruency between the psychological measures of restorativeness and the three physiological responses. Improved scores on the Perceived Restorativeness Scale corresponded to increased EMG and EEG readings and lower BVP measurements. These findings provide some objective evidence toward the psychophysiological values, and perhaps benefits, of wildland-wilderness environments.
- You may send email to firstname.lastname@example.org to request a hard copy of this publication.
- (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationChang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Ping-Kun; Hammitt, William E.; Machnik, Lisa. 2007. Psychophysiological responses and restorative values of wilderness environments. In: Watson, Alan; Sproull, Janet; Dean, Liese, comps. Science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values: Eighth World Wilderness Congress symposium; September 30-October 6, 2005; Anchorage, AK. Proceedings RMRS-P-49. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 479-484
Keywordswilderness, biodiversity, protected areas, economics, subsistence, tourism, traditional knowledge, community involvement, policy, stewardship, education, spiritual values
- Identifying predictors for quality and quantity restorative character of wilderness: using events as an analysis unit
- Experiencing the restorative components of wilderness environments: Does congestion interfere and does length of exposure matter?
- A comparison of viewer reactions to outdoor scenes and photographs of those scenes
XML: View XML