Nanotechnology has the potential to greatly impact the wood protection industry through the creation of nanomaterials with unique properties. Nanobiocides may find applications as co-biocides, or may alter treatability properties such as penetration and biocide distribution. Nanocarrier delivery systems may increase the applications for organic biocides through controlled release of biocide, treatment of engineered composites with heat-labile biocides, or prevention of leaching in otherwise soluble biocides. The unique properties of nanomaterials that make them attractive as preservatives may also present unknown and unpredictable risks. Investments by the National Nanotechnology Initiative are directed at research on environmental and health risks. Development of an International Risk Governance Council aims to provide recommendations for assessing the risks associated with nanoproducts before they enter the marketplace.