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    Author(s): C. John Ralph; Steven G. Fancy
    Date: 1994
    Source: Wilson Bulletin 106(4):615-628
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (672 KB)


    We studied populations of the endangered Akepa (Loxops coccineus coccineus) and Hawaii Creeper (Oreomystis mana) at four sites on the island of Hawaii. Mean monthly density (± SE) of Akepa was 5.74 ± 0.87, 1.35 ± 0.41, 0.96 ± 0.13, and 0.76 ± 0.12 Akepa/ha at Kau Forest, Hamakua, Keauhou Ranch, and Kilauea Forest study areas, respectively. Hawaii Creepers were found at densities of 1.68 ± 0.53, 1.79 ± 0.42, 0.48 ± 0.06, and 0.54 ± 0.08 birds/ha, respectively, at the four study areas. Highest capture rates and numbers of birds counted from stations occurred from August through November and February through March. Hatching-year birds were captured from May through December for Akepa and April through December for Hawaii Creeper. Annual survival for adults at Keauhou Ranch was 0.70 ± 0.27 SE for 61 Akepa and 0.73 ± 0.12 SE for 49 Hawaii Creepers. Lowest rates of mortality and emigration occurred between May and August. Both species appeared to defend Type-B territories typical of cardueline finches, retained mates for more than one year, and showed strong philopatry. Home ranges for Hawaii Creepers (x̄ = 7.48 ha) were larger than those for Akepa (x̄ = 3.94 ha). No difference was found between home range sizes of males and females for either species.

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    Ralph, C. John; Fancy, Steven G. 1994. Demography and movements of the endangered Akepa and Hawaii Creeper. Wilson Bulletin 106(4):615-628

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