Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Daniel L. Schmoldt; Robert M. Nelson; Robert J. Ross
    Date: 1996
    Source: Proceedings, Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials and Composites. SPIE 2944: 285-295.
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (335 KB)

    Description

    Millions of wooden pallets are discarded annually due to damage or because their low cost makes them readily disposable. Higher quality wooden pallets, however, can be built from high quality deckboards and stringers, and have a much longer life cycle and a lower cost per trip. The long-term goal of this project is to develop an automated pallet part inspection system to sort pallet parts according to grade. Ultrasonic time of flight (TOF) measurements in a pitch-catch arrangement are being used to distinguish different types of defects, including knots, decay, cross grain, and voids, from clear wood. Rolling transducers of 3 different frequencies (84KHz, 0.5 MHz, and 1.25 MHz) have been used to collect measurements on four oak deckboards of 1/2" thickness. Ultrasonic C-scans taken on a 1/2" x 1/2" grid indicate that TOF with 84 KHz transducers can be used to partially distinguish between several deckboard features and clear wood. Nevertheless, future application of these results to defect detection must not be limited to single, pixel value classification, but must include pixel neighborhoods with textural information.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to pubrequest@fs.fed.us to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Schmoldt, Daniel L.; Nelson, Robert M.; Ross, Robert J. 1996. Ultrasonic Defect Detection in Wooden Pallet Parts for Quality Sorting. Proceedings, Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials and Composites. SPIE 2944: 285-295.

    Related Search


    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page