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    River drainage to the Suwannee River, Florida (Mettee and O'Neil 2003); extirpated from at least 8 of the 14 native states (Mettee and O'Neil 2003). Abundance: Once commercially harvested, now rare (Mettee and O'Neil 2003); largest remaining population occurs in the Apalachicola River, Florida (Barku-100 et a!. 1993). Habitat and ecology: Juveniles are found in rivers for their first 6-8 months, eat fishes and invertebrates. Diurnally, small juveniles use sandbars, then switch to open channels and steep bank habitat; they select cooler temperatures (Mickle 2(06). Little is known of their ecology in marine environments. Juveniles enter the Gulf of Mexico from late summer to early winter. Spawning starts primarily at age 2 and live 6 years (Mettee and O'Neil 2(03). Reproduction: Broadcast spawn spring/early summer at 18-23°C over coarse sand and gravel in moderate currents; no foraging during spawning (Mills 1972).

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    Meadows, Dwayne W.; Adams, Susan B.; Schaefer, Jacob F. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Alosa alabamae (Jordan and Evermann, 1896) (Clupeidae). Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007


    Alosa alabamae Alabama shad, Gulf shad

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