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    The diversity of life in headwater streams (intermittent, first and second order) contributes to the biodiversity of a river system and its riparian network. Small streams differ widely in physical, chemical, and biotic attributes, thus providing habitats for a range of unique species. Headwater species include permanent residents as well as migrants that travel to headwaters at particular seasons or life stages. Movement by migrants links headwaters with downstream and terrestrial ecosystems, as do exports such as emerging and drifting insects.

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    Meyer, Judy L.; Strayer, David L.; Wallace, J. Bruce; Eggert, Sue L.; Helfman, Gene S.; Leonard, Norman E. 2007. The contribution of headwater streams to biodiversity in river networks. Journal of The American Water Resources Association Vol. 43, No. 1


    biotic integrity, intermittent, first-order streams, small streams, invertebrates, fish

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