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    Author(s): David N. Cole
    Date: 2008
    Source: International Journal of Wilderness. 14(1): 32, 42.
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (185 B)


    When crafting the U.S. Wilderness Act, Howard Zahniser selected the word untrammeled rather than undisturbed to describe wilderness (Harvey 2005). This reflected his belief that places that had been disturbed by humans should be considered for wilderness designation because impaired ecosystems could be restored. Like many others, he hoped that restoration could be accomplished simply by leaving the wilderness alone. This was reflected in his famous declaration that wilderness stewards should be guardians rather than gardeners. In recent decades, it has become increasingly clear that human impact from fire suppression to invasive species and air pollution has affected every acre of wilderness. Wilderness stewards must choose to be gardeners or watch as native biodiversity is assaulted by these agents (Cole 2000).

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    Cole, David N. 2008. Wilderness restoration: From philosophical questions about naturalness to tests of practical techniques. International Journal of Wilderness. 14(1): 32, 42.


    U.S. Wilderness Act, wilderness restoration, naturalness

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