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Effects of timber harvest following wildfire in western North AmericaAuthor(s): David L. Peterson; James K. Agee; Gregory H. Aplet; Dennis P. Dykstra; Russell T. Graham; John F. Lehmkuhl; David S. Pilliod; Donald F. Potts; Robert F. Powers; John D. Stuart
Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-776. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 51 p
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
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DescriptionTimber harvest following wildfire leads to different outcomes depending on the biophysical setting of the forest, pattern of burn severity, operational aspects of tree removal, and other management activities. Fire effects range from relatively minor, in which fire burns through the understory and may kill a few trees, to severe, in which fire kills most trees and removes much of the organic soil layer. Postfire logging adds to these effects by removing standing dead trees (snags) and disturbing the soil. The influence of postfire logging depends on the intensity of the fire, intensity of the logging operation, and management activities such as fuel treatments. In severely burned forest, timing of logging following fire (same season as fire vs. subsequent years) can influence the magnitude of effects on naturally regenerating trees, soils, and commercial wood value. Removal of snags reduces long-term fuel loads but generally results in increased amounts of fine fuels for the first few years after logging unless surface fuels are effectively treated. By reducing evapotranspiration, disturbing the soil organic horizon, and creating hydrophobic soils in some cases, fire can cause large increases in surface-water runoff, streamflow, and erosion. Through soil disturbance, especially the construction of roads, logging with ground-based equipment and cable yarding can exacerbate this effect, increasing erosion and altering hydrological function at the local scale. Effects on aquatic systems of removing trees are mostly negative, and logging and transportation systems that disturb the soil surface or accelerate road-related erosion can be particularly harmful unless disturbances are mitigated. Cavity-nesting birds, small mammals, and amphibians may be affected by harvest of standing dead and live trees, with negative effects on most species but positive or neutral effects on other species, depending on the intensity and extent of logging. Data gaps on postfire logging include the effects of various intensities of logging, patch size of harvest relative to fire size, and long-term (10+ years) biophysical changes. Uncertainty about the effects of postfire logging can be reduced by implementing management experiments to document long-term changes in natural resources at different spatial scales.
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CitationPeterson, David L.; Agee, James K.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Dykstra, Dennis P.; Graham, Russell T.; Lehmkuhl, John F.; Pilliod, David S.; Potts, Donald F.; Powers, Robert F.; Stuart, John D. 2009. Effects of timber harvest following wildfire in western North America. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-776. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 51 p
KeywordsFire effects, postfire logging, postfire management, salvage logging, soil disturbance
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