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    Author(s): Wallace P. Erickson; Gregory D. Johnson; David P. Jr. Young
    Date: 2005
    Source: In: Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D., editors 2005. Bird Conservation Implementation and Integration in the Americas: Proceedings of the Third International Partners in Flight Conference. 2002 March 20-24; Asilomar, California, Volume 2 Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-191. Albany, CA: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: p. 1029-1042
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (256.0 KB)

    Description

    We estimate that from 500 million to possibly over 1 billion birds are killed annually in the United States due to anthropogenic sources including collisions with human-made structures such as vehicles, buildings and windows, power lines, communication towers, and wind turbines; electrocutions; oil spills and other contaminants; pesticides; cat predation; and commercial fishing by-catch. Many of the deaths from these sources would be considered unlawful take under federal laws such as the Endangered Species Act, Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act. In this paper, we summarize this literature and provide the basis for the mortality projections for many of the apparent significant sources. Most of the mortality projections are based on small sample sizes, and on studies typically lacking adjustments for scavenging and searcher efficiency biases. Although the estimates for each source often range by an order of magnitude, the cumulative mortality from all these sources continues to be a concern.

    Publication Notes

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    Citation

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Young, David P. Jr. 2005. A summary and comparison of bird mortality from anthropogenic causes with an emphasis on collisions. In: Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D., editors 2005. Bird Conservation Implementation and Integration in the Americas: Proceedings of the Third International Partners in Flight Conference. 2002 March 20-24; Asilomar, California, Volume 2 Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-191. Albany, CA: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: p. 1029-1042

    Keywords

    avian mortality, avian fatalities, collisions, communication towers, contaminants, electrocutions, fishing by-catch, power lines, vehicles, wind turbines

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