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    Author(s): Sandra L. Jacobson
    Source: In: Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D., editors 2005. Bird Conservation Implementation and Integration in the Americas: Proceedings of the Third International Partners in Flight Conference. 2002 March 20-24; Asilomar, California, Volume 2 Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-191. Albany, CA: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: p. 1043-1050
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (182.0 KB)

    Description

    Highways cause significant impacts to birds in four ways: direct mortality, indirect mortality, habitat fragmentation, and disturbance. In this paper I discuss highway-related impacts, and suggest solutions from a highway management perspective. Non-flying birds (either behaviorally or structurally) such as gallinaceous birds and ducklings; waterbirds such as terns; owls; ground-nesters; scavengers; Neotropical overwater migrants; frugivorous birds; and birds attracted to salt are often killed from highway-related causes. Suggested solutions include highway crossing structures, diversion poles on bridges or medians, modified right-of-way mowing regimes, road kill removal, appropriate median vegetation, and modified deicing agents. Indirect mortalities caused by highway construction or maintenance include habitat loss and decreased quality; predator attraction or bridges to nesting habitat; increased incidence of invasive species; increased associated lethal structures; and maintenance practices that disrupt reproduction. Suggested solutions include highway management strategies that consider avian needs.

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    Citation

    Jacobson, Sandra L. Mitigation measures for highway-caused impacts to birds. In: Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D., editors. 2005. Bird Conservation Implementation and Integration in the Americas: Proceedings of the Third International Partners in Flight Conference. 2002 March 20-24; Asilomar, California, Volume 2 Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-191. Albany, CA: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: p. 1043-1050

    Keywords

    birds, direct mortality, disturbance, fragmentation, highway, indirect mortality, mitigation, vehicle-animal collision, wildlife crossing structure

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