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    Author(s): Michael G. Shelton; Michael D. Cain
    Date: 2002
    Source: Can. J. For. Res. 32: 412-419 (2002)
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (202 KB)

    Description

    Many of the competitors of the regeneration of loblolly and shortleaf pines (Pinus taeda, L. and Pinus echinata Mill., respectively) develop from seed disseminated on the site after reproduction cutting or from the seed bank. To evaluate the potential carry-over of the seeds from 11 shrub and vine competitors of these two important southern pines, we designed packets so that fruits could be deposited on the forest floor and subsequently extracted over a 3-year period. After extraction, repeated cycles of 60 days of germination testing followed by 60 days of stratification were conducted over a maximum of 42 months to determine the potential for seed carry-over and the germination characteristics of the species. Seeds of privet (Ligustrum vulgare L.) showed no viability after the first winter of field storage, while seeds of rattan vine (Berchemiu scandens (Hill) K. Koch) and Japanese honeysuckle (Loniceru japonicu Thunb.) had low viability (l-3%) after the third year. In contrast, seeds of smooth sumac (Rhus gulbra L.), devils-walkingstick (Arulia spinosu L.), pepper vine (Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne), and blackberry (Rubus argutus Link) were moderate in viability (7-19%) after the third year of field storage, while seeds of beautyberry (Cullicarpa americana L.), common greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia L:), and summer grape (Vitis aestivulis Michx.) showed a high viability (31-55%). Cumulative germination of seeds of deciduous holly (Ilex decidua Walt.) was greater after 3 years of field storage (8%) than after only 1 year (4%); for the first removal from field storage, no germination occurred until the ninth germination cycle. Results indicate that new seedlings of some species of shrubs and vines rely mostly on seeds dispersed shortly before or after disturbance, while seedlings of other species appear to develop from seeds that have been stored for long periods in the seed bank. Results of this study can be useful in developing ecologically sound strategies for controlling competing vegetation in forest stands of the southeastern United States.

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    Citation

    Shelton, Michael G.; Cain, Michael D. 2002. Potential carry-over of seeds from 11 common shrub and vine competitors of loblolly and shortleaf pines. Can. J. For. Res. 32: 412-419 (2002)

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