Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): William B. </p> Critchfield
    Date: 1977
    Source: Madroño, Volume 24(4): p. 193-212
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (2.0 MB)


    The pines have been more successful than most of their coniferous relatives in occupying marginal habitats at the upper and lower edges of the forest zone in western North America. Among the groups restricted to such habitats is subsection Baljourianae of Pinus, comprising the fox tail and bristlecone pines. These pines characteristically grow on cold dry sites at high elevations, and in most places have few tree associates. Perhaps because of their inaccessibility and limited economic importance, not much was known about them until E. Schulman's discovery in the mid-1950's that some bristlecone pines reach greater ages than other higher organisms (Ferguson, 1968). Since then, much has been learned about the Baljourianae, and investigations of natural variation have generated two taxonomic proposals in the group. Bailey (1970) named the western populations of bristlecone pine P. longaeva, restricting the older name, P. aristata Engelm., to the eastern populations. Mastrogiuseppe (1972) proposed the subdivision of foxtail pine (P. balfouriana Grev. & Balf.) into two subspecies.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Critchfield, William B.

    1977. Hybridization of foxtail and bristlecone pines. Madroño, Volume 24(4): p. 193-212

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page