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    Invasive species are one of the leading threats to biodiversity worldwide. Therefore, chemical herbicides are increasingly used to control invasive plants in natural and semi-natural areas. Little is known about the non-target impacts of these chemicals on native species. We conducted an experiment to test the demographic effects of the herbicide picloram on a native dominant forb, arrowleaf balsamroot Balsamorhiza sagittata. As reported in earlier studies, picloram did not change leaf area of balsamroot in the short term (5 years). However, a single application of picloram dramatically reduced flowering and seed set, and these effects have persisted for at least 4 years after spraying.

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    Crone, Elizabeth E.; Marler, Marilyn; Pearson, Dean E. 2009. Non-target effects of broadleaf herbicide on a native perennial forb: a demographic framework for assessing and minimizing impacts. Journal of Applied Ecology. 46: 673-682.


    Balsamorhiza sagittata, Centaurea maculosa, decision analysis, grassland, matrix model, pesticide, picloram, population dynamics, sensitivity analysis, weed control

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