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    To understand the biogeography of truffle-like fungi, DNA sequences were analysed from representative taxa of Hysterangiales. Multigene phylogenies and the results of ancestral area reconstructions are consistent with the hypothesis of an Australian, or eastern Gondwanan, origin of Hysterangiales with subsequent range expansions to the Northern Hemisphere. However, neither Northern Hemisphere nor Southern Hemisphere taxa formed a monophyletic group, which is in conflict with a strictly vicariant scenario. Therefore, the occurrence and importance of long-distance dispersal could not be rejected. Although a pre-Gondwanan origin of Hysterangiales remains as a possibility, this hypothesis requires that Hysterangiales existed prior to the origin of the currently recognized ectomycorrhizal plants, as well as the arrival of mycophagous animals in Australia. This also requires that a basal paraphyletic assemblage represents parallel evolution of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, or that Hysterangiales was mycorrhizal with members of the extinct flora of Gondwana. Regardless, models for both ancient and more recent origins of Hysterangiales are consistent with truffle-like fungi being capable of transoceanic dispersal.

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    Hosaka, Kentaro; Castellano, Michael A.; Spatafora, Joseph W. 2008. Biogeography of Hysterangiales (Phallomycetidae, Basidiomycota). Mycological Research. 112: 448-462


    Ectomycorrhizae, false truffles, gomphoid-phalloid, mycophagy, phylogeography

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