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    Many species of toads (family Bufonidae), including the western toad (Bufo boreas), are declining in-the western United States. The ability of this species to recover from declines depends, in part, on its reproductive success. This study examined the breeding frequency in both sexes of B. borelis in northeastern Oregon compared to that observed in other populations. We recaptured 0 to 8.7 percent (n = 844) of adult female toads that were tagged between 2002 and 2007. Twenty-one females oviposited during two consecutive years, and two females laid eggs in three consecutive years. We recaptured 4.7 to 34.6percent (n = 2208) of adult male toads in a subsequent year. We captured 165 males in two consecutive years, 37 males in three years, and 14 males in four years.

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    Bull, Evelyn L.; Carey, Cynthia. 2008. Breeding frequency of western toads (Bufo boreas) in northeastern Oregeon. Herpotological Conservation and Biology. 3(2): 282-288


    Boreal toad, Bufo boreas, fecundity, northeastern Oregon, oviposition, western toad

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