This study uses a multiscale, multimethods approach to examine the effects of declining timber harvests on the well-being of forest communities in the Pacific Northwest as a result of the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan). We found that the effects of declining timber harvests were variable and depended on the importance of the timber sector in a community in the late 1980s, the extent to which federal timber supported that sector, and the degree to which local residents depended on U.S. Forest Service jobs. In addition, we found that other goods, services, and opportunities associated with federal lands declined under the Plan, further affecting communities by curtailing private and public sector business and employment opportunities. Community effects also depended on the unique circumstances of a community. A socioeconomic well-being index we developed indicated that overall, communities within 5 miles of a federal forest were not doing as well as communities farther away.